As nutrition researcher Marion Nestle puts it: “Many — if not most — studies demonstrating that breakfast eaters are healthier and manage weight better than non-breakfast eaters were sponsored by Kellogg or other breakfast cereal companies whose businesses depend on people believing that breakfast means ready-to-eat cereal.”
Check out the disclosures on these papers to get a sense of the conflicts: This review of observational data, which concluded that breakfast skipping is not a good way to manage weight, was funded by the Kellogg Company. Another study, which found that skipping breakfast had health costs, was funded by the Quaker Oats. Quaker also contributed to the study design — and edited the manuscript! Granted, that’s not proof that the study is wrong, but it should make one awfully skeptical.
Do Charter Middle Schools Improve Students’ College Outcomes?
A study from the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE) obtained college enrollment and completion data for students who — more than a decade ago — entered lotteries to be admitted to 31 charter middle schools across the United States. College outcomes were compared for 1,723 randomly selected “lottery winners” and 1,150 randomly selected “lottery losers”. The study found that being admitted to a charter middle school did not affect college outcomes. Also, there was not a consistent relationship between a charter school’s impact on middle school achievement and the school’s impact on college outcomes.
Checklist for Creating Bibliographies and References List Using APA
Refer to the OWL site for APA style guidelines.
[ ] Identify the type of source you are creating a bibliography for. A bibliography is the full information about the source included for each source and listed in the References list as a page at the end of a cited essay or longer work (use a page break between the end of the work and the start of the References list). (A number of “Reference List” options are listed in the left menu on the OWL site.)
[ ] Be sure to distinguish between print and online/electronic sources. Print sources (including paginated PDFs of hard-copy sources) should not include hyperlinks (be careful not to include your search links when using data bases or searches from your library), but should include DOI information if available. Online/electronic sources (including ebooks) must include active and accurate links; for electronic only sources retrieved through a library search, housed in the library, be sure to use the permalink provided (do not copy the http from the guide at the top of the search engine).
[ ] Bibliographies should be formatted using double-spacing, Times New Roman/12 pt. font, and hanging indents (use the ruler or the Format>Paragraph to create a hanging indent; do not use return>tab).
[ ] When you create the full References list of bibliographies, list the sources alphabetically by the first word of each bibliography (often an author last name).
[ ] Each bibliography should include initial information (usually author information) followed by a date (always second information), but each source should follow the APA guidelines required for the type of source being cited. It is crucial to use the OWL site as a reference for each source since kinds of sources have different requirements; this is not something to memorize. Note: Some source may not include all the information required; if no author listed, for example, move the information you have (such as the title) to the left, keeping the date always second.
[ ] For sources without a date, include (n.d.) in the date position for “no date.”
[ ] APA requires listing authors names by last name followed by first and middle (if provided) initials; include author names in the order listed on the source if multiple authors, and include an ampersand (&) before the last author. Note the placement and requirement of commas and periods in listing multiple authors:
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.
Kincheloe, J.L., & Steinberg, S.R. (2007). Cutting class: Socioeconomic status and education.
New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Bomer, R., Dworin, J. E., May, L., & Semingson, P. (2008). Miseducating teachers about the
poor: A critical analysis of Ruby Payne’s claims about poverty. Teachers College
Record, 110(12), 2497-2531.
[ ] Essay titles do not include quote marks, and capitalize only the first word of the title, first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns. (See essay titles above.)
[ ] Book titles should be in italics, and capitalize only the first word of the title, first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns. Place of publication should include cite and state (if in U.S.), but use the state abbreviation. (See book titles above.)
[ ] Journal titles are in italics, and capitalize all key words as is standard. (See journal titles above).
[ ] Throughout bibliographies, note carefully the placement of periods and commas as well as spaces. For example, for journals, the volume number is in italics and then no space before including the issue number in parentheses. (See the journal bibliographies above.)