We Can’t Graph Our Way Out of the Research on Education Spending

Shanker Blog: We Can’t Graph Our Way Out of the Research on Education Spending


Notes on Research Project Essays

Please refer to this check list carefully when revising:

[ ] APA style for formatting a cover page: (1) check “Different first page,” (2) Running head: HEADER (note caps), (3) page number on title page (inserting page numbers does not work; type “1”). Use a page break to start page 2

[ ] Include your title from the title page at top of page 2 before starting essay. Do not put a subhead under the title.

[ ] The opening should be a vivid and credible narrative or personal narrative, 3-4 paragraphs long. Before moving to the next section, clarify the purpose of this project essay (analysis of media coverage of a topic compared to the research base on the topic).

[ ] Avoid confusing being general in the opening for being vague; in fact, about both general and vague. For example, “Teaching grammar has become a serious debate in the U.S.” This says nothing.

[ ] Use subheads (flush left, bold, caps; Level 2) after the opening to guide your reader through the major sections that must include: an analysis of media coverage of your topic, an overview of research (a mini-lit review) on your topic, and a final analysis of how those compare.

[ ] Your ending should create cohesion for your discussion, possibly by returning to your opening narrative. A call to action or framing for your reader how to move forward in terms of your topic are effective.

[ ] Avoid huge, rambling paragraphs. Work on flow, cohesion.

[ ] Use a page break to begin your reference. References must include all scholarly and media sources. Take care with hanging indents (no return>tab; use the ruler or menu and have 1/2″ hanging indents) and all APA formatting (italics, periods and commas, caps and lower case, etc.). Never submit a cited essay, even a draft, without the references list as part of the essay.

[ ] In-text citations must be accurate, neither omitted or over-cited. Look carefully at the sample provided. But some issues include:

  • APA focuses on Author (year) so keep them together and cite immediately: Thomas (2016) argues … . Or: … (Thomas, 2016). The name is used only once in any sentence to cite; pronouns count as using the name.
  • Use page numbers with all quotes from hard copy references, although you should quote rarely or not at all when synthesizing scholarly sources. For example, “…” (Thomas, 2016, p. 12). Note the space and period placement.
  • Do not plod through your scholarly sources one at a time; synthesize your research and then discuss the patterns and themes, citing multiple sources per pattern/theme. Do not refer to authors, titles, or that you are doing research (or that your source authors did research).
  • Parenthetical formatting: (Thomas, 2016). (Thomas, 2016, p. 12). (Black & White, 2013). (Black, Brown, & White, 2012). (Black, 2014; Brown, 2016; White, 2017).

Classroom benefits of recess

Learning Environments Research

Volume 20, Issue 3pp 433–445Cite as

Classroom benefits of recess

Caitlin Brez

Virgil Sheets


Despite research demonstrating the importance of recess and free play for children, schools have been reducing free play time for more academic pursuits (Ramstetter et al. in J Sch Health 80:517–526, 2010; Waite-Stupiansky and Findlay in Educ Forum 66:16–25, 2001). Recently, there has been renewed interest in understanding the critical role that free play has for children’s development. The current study was designed to contribute to this literature as well as investigate how the type of environment in which children play influences their behaviour in the classroom. Children in grades 3–5 were tested before and after recess on cognitive measures of sustained attention and creativity. We found an increase in children’s sustained attention after recess. We additionally found that the type of environment in which children played differed depending on children’s behaviour and traits. Our findings suggest that recess is an important factor in children’s performance in school and should be considered an important part of the school day. Furthermore, we suggest that researchers should consider how individual differences influence the relationship between recess and children’s performance in the classroom. Implications of this research for schools are considered.